[106][107][108], Niobium is used in arc welding rods for some stabilized grades of stainless steel[109] and in anodes for cathodic protection systems on some water tanks, which are then usually plated with platinum. Niobium is a lustrous, grey, ductile, paramagnetic metal in group 5 of the periodic table (see table), with an electron configuration in the outermost shells atypical for group 5. Niobium precipitates a hardening γ''-phase within the grain structure of the superalloy. [74] The main niobium carbide is NbC, an extremely hard, refractory, ceramic material, commercially used in cutting tool bits. RMBH87 [53] It resists corrosion by fused alkalis and by acids, including aqua regia, hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric and phosphoric acids. The atomic number of niobium is 41. [102] Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Niobium products. Several methods are used for the reduction to metallic niobium. [65][66], Niobium forms oxides in the oxidation states +5 (Nb2O5),[67] +4 (NbO2), +3 (Nb2O3),[53] and the rarer oxidation state, +2 (NbO). The short- and long-term exposure to niobates and niobium chloride, two chemicals that are water-soluble, have been tested in rats. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Name: Niobium Symbol: Nb Atomic Number: 41 Atomic Mass: 92.90638 amu Melting Point: 2468.0 °C (2741.15 K, 4474.4 °F) Boiling Point: 4927.0 °C (5200.15 K, 8900.6 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 41 Number of Neutrons: 52 Classification: Transition Metal Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 8.57 g/cm 3 Color: white Atomic Structure in which the niobium was selectively oxidized, thus creating unique finishes where no two coins are exactly alike. Niobium is also known as columbium, is a chemical element and it is a member of group 5 and period 5 in the periodic table. [104] For this reason, niobium is used in prosthetics and implant devices, such as pacemakers. With this method, a relatively high purity niobium can be obtained. In 1846 German chemist Henrich Rose independently discover… [91], The high sensitivity of superconducting niobium nitride bolometers make them an ideal detector for electromagnetic radiation in the THz frequency band. [85][86] These superconducting magnets are used in magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance instruments as well as in particle accelerators. The atomic number of niobium is 41 and it is indicated by symbol is Nb. Newer processes use the liquid extraction of the fluorides from aqueous solution by organic solvents like cyclohexanone. Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 92.906 4. For example, Austria produced a series of silver niobium euro coins starting in 2003; the colour in these coins is created by the diffraction of light by a thin anodized oxide layer. An SEM micrograph of the niobium powder after second stage reduction is shown in Fig. Copyright 2020 Nuclear Power for Everybody | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter, Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter, Zirconium – Atomic Number – Atomic Mass – Density of Zirconium, Promethium – Atomic Number – Atomic Mass – Density of Promethium, Reactor Dynamics – Quiz – Test your Knowledge, UK and Euratom sign Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, US uranium miners ready to support nuclear power, says Uranium Committee, Adequate uranium to meet demand, latest Red Book concludes. Element Niobium (Nb), Group 5, Atomic Number 41, d-block, Mass 92.906. It is a soft, grey and ductile transition metal. The electrolysis of a molten mixture of K2[NbOF5] and sodium chloride is one; the other is the reduction of the fluoride with sodium. Niobium is a chemical element with atomic number 41 and represented with the symbol Nb in the Periodic Table. The number of neutrons is always mass number minus atomic number; in this instance, 52. Wah Chang had an inventory of hafnium, refined from nuclear-grade zirconium alloys, that it wanted to put to commercial use. [56] Nb(V) is also slightly soluble in alkaline media due to the formation of soluble polyoxoniobate species. The first governor of Connecticut, John Winthrop the Younger, discovered a new mineral around 1734. Niobium is added to glass to obtain a higher refractive index, making possible thinner and lighter corrective glasses. Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different nu… It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles. Calculate the radius of a niobium atom. with one following in 2007. [119][120][121] For oral administration the toxicity is lower; a study with rats yielded a LD50 after seven days of 940 mg/kg. Lesser amounts are found in Malawi's Kanyika Deposit (Kanyika mine). Molar mass of niobium is 92.906380 ± 0.000020 g/mol Compound name is niobium Convert between Nb weight and moles Further purification is necessary to reach the grade for superconductive alloys. Niobium is the 34 th most common element in … Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Niobium is not a very rare element. [84], The reactivity of niobium with oxygen requires it to be worked in a vacuum or inert atmosphere, which significantly increases the cost and difficulty of production. Niobium is closely associated with tantalum in ores and in properties. ", "$5 Sterling Silver and Niobium Coin – Hunter's Moon (2011)", "Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid", "The reaction network in propane oxidation over phase-pure MoVTeNb M1 oxide catalysts", "New trends in the use of metals in jewellery", "Zirconium, Niobium, Antimony, Vanadium and Lead in Rats: Life term studies", Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, Niobium for particle accelerators eg ILC. The result is aluminium oxide and ferroniobium, an alloy of iron and niobium used in steel production. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m/V There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect: Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure. The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. The cavities will be used in the 30-kilometre (19 mi) linear particle accelerator of the International Linear Collider. Niobium is a chemical element with symbol Nb and atomic number 41. [81][82] These superalloys were used, for example, in advanced air frame systems for the Gemini program. [72] The tetrahalides (NbX4) are dark-coloured polymers with Nb-Nb bonds; for example, the black hygroscopic niobium tetrafluoride (NbF4) and brown niobium tetrachloride (NbCl4). [87] For example, the Large Hadron Collider uses 600 tons of superconducting strands, while the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor uses an estimated 600 tonnes of Nb3Sn strands and 250 tonnes of NbTi strands. Niobium and some niobium alloys are physiologically inert and hypoallergenic. The 103rd experimental composition of the C-series alloys, Nb-10Hf-1Ti, had the best combination of formability and high-temperature properties. In aqueous solutions, niobium only exhibit the +5 oxidation state. Mineral columbite is the main source of this element. It is frequently used in jewelry and has been tested for use in some medical implants. Phase at room temperature: Solid 6. Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon-12. Wah Chang fabricated the first 500-lb heat of C-103 in 1961, ingot to sheet, using EBM and VAR. The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3). While niobium dust is an eye and skin irritant and a potential fire hazard, elemental niobium on a larger scale is physiologically inert (and thus hypoallergenic) and harmless. The project that yielded C-103 began in 1959 with as many as 256 experimental niobium alloys in the "C-series" (possibly from columbium) that could be melted as buttons and rolled into sheet. When we use data that are related to certain product, we use only data released by public relations departments and allowed for use. [100] In 2012, ten coins are available showing a broad variety of colours in the centre of the coin: blue, green, brown, purple, violet, or yellow. Melting point: 4,491 degrees Fahrenheit (2,477 degrees Celsius) 7. [117][118], Niobium-containing compounds are rarely encountered by most people, but some are toxic and should be treated with care. It is found freely in nature in abundance. Both are hydrolyzed to give oxides and oxyhalides, such as NbOCl3. The intended applications included turbine engines and liquid metal heat exchangers. It is used as an alloy with iron and nickel. [58] The United States Geological Survey estimates that the production increased from 38,700 tonnes in 2005 to 44,500 tonnes in 2006. The Properties of the Niobium Element Symbol of Element : Nb Atomic Number : 41 Atomic Mass: 92.90638 amu Melting Point: 2468.0 °C - 2741.15 °K Boiling Point: 4927.0 °C - 5200.15 °K Number of Protons/Electrons: 41 Number … Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The price of 99.8 % pure niobium pieces is 47.20 € for 100 g. [60] During the ten-year period between 1995 and 2005, the production more than doubled, starting from 17,800 tonnes in 1995. Examples are lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lanthanum niobate (LaNbO4). It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminium or zirconium. [39] This heptafluoride tends to form the oxopentafluoride more readily than does the tantalum compound. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). View information & documentation regarding Niobium, including CAS, MSDS & more. 1. At least a … These effects in turn increase the toughness, strength, formability, and weldability. Here is my question Niobium has a density of $8.57 \\pu{g/cm^3}$ and crystallizes with the body-centered cubic unit cell. [27] Niobium is sometimes used in considerably higher quantities for highly wear-resistant machine components and knives, as high as 3% in Crucible CPM S110V stainless steel. Niobium (Nb), chemical element, refractory metal of Group 5 (Vb) of the periodic table, used in alloys, tools and dies, and superconductive magnets. [53][56] The pentahalides (NbX5) feature octahedral Nb centres. [33] The metal begins to oxidize in air at 200 °C. It … The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. [89] A cryomodule team at Fermilab used the same SRF technology from the FLASH project to develop 1.3 GHz nine-cell SRF cavities made from pure niobium.